Running a Storage Node

Server Requirement

The recommended requirement of a storage server:


Recommended OS

Linux 64-bit Intel / AMD

# of CPU Cores

β‰₯ 4


β‰₯ 8 GB


β‰₯ 5 Mbps

Public Network IP


Linux Kernel Version

5.11 or higher

Server Preparation

Install Docker

Please refer to the official documentation for Docker installation.

Firewall Configuration

The following commands are executed with root privileges. If error messages of permission denied appear, switch to root privilege or add sudo at the beginning of these commands.

By default, the node client program, cess-bucket, uses port 4001 to listen for incoming connections, if your OS firewalled the port by default, you may need to enable the access to the port.

ufw allow 4001

Optional: Mount Additional Drive

This step is required only if you are mounting another disk / storage device to your server.

Check the hard disk status using the df -h command:

df -h

If the disk is not mounted, the hard drive for storage mining cannot be used. Use the commands below to view unmounted hard disks:

fdisk -l

# Output result
Disk /dev/vdb: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x331195d1

From the above, we can see that the unmounted disk is /dev/vdb. We will be using /dev/vdb to demonstrate the mounting operation.

Allocate the /dev/vdb disk:

fdisk /dev/vdb

Enter and press Enter:
the value after default

Format the newly divided disk into ext4 format:

mkfs.ext4 /dev/vdb

Enter "y" to continue if the system asks to proceed:

Proceed anyway? (y,N) y

Create /cess directory to mount the disk. Using /cess as an example:

sudo mkdir /cess
sudo echo "/dev/vdb /cess ext4 defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

Replace /dev/vdb with your own disk name. /cess has to remain the same as created in the previous step. If you are not under root privileges, try:

echo "/dev/vdb /cess ext4 defaults 0 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab

Mount /cess:

mount -a

Check the disk mounting status:

df -h

If /cess appears, the disk has been successfully mounted.

Prepare CESS Accounts

Miners need to create at least two wallet accounts.

  • Earning Account: Used to receive mining rewards.

  • Staking Account: Used to pay for staking TCESS.

  • Signature Account: Used to sign blockchain transactions. If no staking account is specified, this account will also be used to pay staking TCESS.

  • Storage Deposit: To keep the storage node miner in honoring its service commitment, the miner account will have its native tokens locked for the storage amount pledged to offer. Currently in testnet, it is 4,000 TCESS per TB. The pledged space is round up to the closest TB unit and locked for that amount multiply with 4,000 TCESS. The minimum locked token is also 4,000 TCESS.

Note:Each signature account can only be used by one storage miner, otherwise an exception will occur.

Please refer to Creating CESS Accounts for creating a CESS account, goto CESS faucet to get our testnet tokens, TCESS, or contact us to get assistance.

Install CESS Client

  1. Check for the latest version at:

  2. Download and install

    tar -xvzf vx.x.x.tar.gz
    cd cess-nodeadm-x.x.x/

⚠️ Replace the above x.x.x with the latest version (as of writing, it is 0.5.5).

If a message Install cess nodeadm success shows up at the end, it means the installation is completed.

If the installation fails, please check the troubleshoot procedures.

  1. Stop and removing existing services

    Stop existing services:

    sudo cess stop
    # or
    sudo cess down

    Remove existing services:

    sudo cess purge

Configure CESS Client

Setup a Running Network

# Running the storage node on development network:
sudo cess profile devtnet

# or running the storage node on test network:
sudo cess profile testnet

Setup Configuration

sudo cess config set

Enter cess node mode from 'authority/storage/watcher': storage
Enter cess storage listener port (current: 15001, press enter to skip): 
Enter cess storage earnings account: # enter the account to earn reward, should start from "c..."
Enter cess storage signature account phrase: # enter your signature account mnemonic, it can only be used by one storage miner!
Enter cess storage disk path: # the disk path
Enter cess storage space, by GB unit (current: 300, press enter to skip): 
Enter the number of CPU cores used for mining; Your CPU cores are 4
  (current: 3, 0 means all cores are used; press enter to skip): 
Enter the staker\'s payment account if you have another (if it is the same as the signature account, press enter to skip): # your another staking account.
Enter the reserved TEE worker endpoints (separate multiple values with commas, press enter to skip):
Set configurations successfully
  • If a staker payment account is provided, for testnet, the pledged space (answer to the Enter cess storage space) is round up to the closest TB unit and that amount multiply with 4,000 amount of TCESS will be locked as a miner deposit.

  • If a staker payment account is not provided, then another account, the signature account, as the staking account.

  • Default TEE worker endpoints for the chain will be used if you don't provide any TEE worker endpoints. This doesn't affect your reward as a storage miner.

Start CESS bucket

sudo cess start

[+] Running 3/0
 βœ” Container chain       Running                                                0.0s
 βœ” Container bucket      Running                                                0.0s
 βœ” Container watchtower  Running                                                0.0s

If you want to speed up your earnings, you can choose to deploy a Marker-type TEE Worker to help miners certify space and mark user service files. Please refer to the TEE Worker User Guide.

Common Operations

Check CESS Chain Sync Status

docker logs chain

As shown below, if we see that the height of the block corresponding to "best" is about the latest height in CESS Explorer, it means the local chain node synchronization is completed.

Only when the chain synchronization is completed can you operate other functions such as increase the staking, view the status of the node, etc.

Check Your Storage Miner Status On-chain

You can check your miner status on-chain.

  1. On selected state query: select sminer pallet and allMiner() storage item

  2. Click the button on the right to query the state

  3. At the bottom of the returned list, you should find the miner address that your mnemonic (with root path) generated from your answer to sudo cess config set. See below for an example.

  4. You can also check your detail miner info with selecting sminer pallet and minerItems(AccountId32) storage item. In the Option<AccountId32>, choose/input the miner address. It will return your detail information on-chain. See below for an example.

  5. Go to the Accounts page and check your account details, you would see a certain amount of TCESS has been reserved as the storage deposit.

View the Storage Node Log

docker logs bucket

As shown below, seeing /kldr-testnet indicates that the network environment is a test network, and seeing Connected to the bootstrap node... indicates that there is a connection to the bootstrap node.

View Bucket Status

sudo cess bucket stat

An example of the returned result is shown below:

Refer to the Glossary on the names above.

At the beginning of the storage node synchronization, all your validated space, used space, and locked space are 0. It is only when the validated space been incremented above 0 that the storage miner start earning rewards. For testnet, it take about an hour after the storage node chain synchronization completed, as shown below.

If you get the result of You are not a storage node , please wait for the chain synchronization to complete.

Increase Miner Staking

sudo cess bucket increase staking <deposit amount>

Withdraw Miner Staking

After your node has exited CESS Network (see below), run

sudo cess bucket withdraw

Query Reward Information

sudo cess bucket reward

Claim Reward

sudo cess bucket claim

Update All Service Images

sudo cess pullimg

Stop and Remove All Services

sudo cess down

Update Earnings Account

sudo cess bucket update earnings [earnings account]

Exit CESS Network

sudo cess bucket exit

Upgrade CESS Client

Stop and Remove All Services

sudo cess stop
sudo cess down

Remove All Chain Data

Do not perform this operation unless the CESS network has been redeployed and it is confirmed that the data can be cleared.

sudo cess purge

Update cess-nodeadm

tar -xvf vx.x.x.tar.gz
cd cess-nodeadm-x.x.x
sudo ./ --skip-dep

Update All Service Images

sudo cess pullimg

Last updated